The Shimla Agreement Of 1972



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The two ministers invoked the 1972 Shimla Agreement and said that bilateral issues could only be resolved with his help — and nothing else. The next day, Gandhi Kaul admitted that she „didn`t trust“ Bhutto, but that she wanted to „make a gesture to the Pakistani people by which we must finally resolve this issue.“ This was based on the assumption that Pakistan, after its shock defeat, was on the threshold of a structural change that India should allow rather than thwart. Gandhi told Parliament in August 1972: „There is a big change in Pakistan. The Pakistanis may not have wanted this change. But the change is there, whether they like it or not. It is clear that policy makers have been torn between seeking immediate gains in security and seeking a more sustainable regional order. Such an order was based on the possibility of a new Pakistan that could replace Islam with a modern secular ideology. D.P. Dhar, another great confidant of Gandhi and India`s chief negotiator, also seemed to support Haksar`s core spirit. In his telegram to Haksar in March 1972, Dhar said: „The colony (Simla) will not be between the victor and the vanquished, because such a colony has given rise to new conflicts and more violent conflicts in history. An agreement on the contrary… should also appear as the end of a chapter of criticism between two alienated brothers. But we now also know that Dhar was less enthusiastic about the prospect of change in Pakistan than in ensuring that India was seen as a credible attempt to maintain peace. Most importantly, he wanted India to make obvious profits during the negotiation process. For Dhar, without a solution to the Kashmir issue, „there could be no hope for lasting peace in the subcontinent.“ (iii) Withdrawals will begin on the effective date of this agreement and will be concluded within 30 days.

[4] Donald Trump`s offer to help India and Pakistan resolve the Kashmir issue became a major controversy after India rejected the US president`s assertion that Prime Minister Narendra Modi had filed a motion to do so. As the U.S. government tries to downplay Trump`s remarks by calling the Kashmir issue „bilateral“ to „discuss India and Pakistan,“ the focus has shifted again to previous „bilateral agreements,“ whose 1972 Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement), signed by then-Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , for friendly relations between the two countries. Indira Gandhi`s reputation for intelligent state art is widely celebrated, even by her most outspoken critics. Their quest for peacemakers was as audacious as India approached the 1972 peace conference in Shimla. But the fall of 1972 is fascinating for what it did not reflect — India did not use the fruits of the victory of the 1971 war to find an advantageous geopolitical solution. Finally, for the first time since partition, India is negotiating with Pakistan the strength and prestige of a position of strength (of prisoners of war); 93,000 Pakistani prisoners of war, including all military leaders in eastern Pakistan, surrendered to the Indian armed forces. India had also conquered strategic sites in Kashmir and 5,000 square miles from Pakistani territory in Sindh and the south of the city. The Simla Agreement was signed on 3 July 1972 in Shimla, the capital of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, between India and Pakistan. [2] This led to the war of liberation of Bangladesh in 1971, which led to the independence of Bangladesh, formerly known as East Pakistan and part of the territory of Pakistan.



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